The Essence of Savitri by R.Y. Deshpande

What is Savitri?

What is Savitri? There are two answers to this question.

The first answer is, it is a story of conjugal love.

In it the marital fidelity is glorified. It is asserted that it can win the greatest victory in life; it can rout the negative power in the creation that can cause upsetting havoc; it can annul the most formidable obstacle; it can win victory over death.

Not only the elimination of what is wrong and hostile; it upholds the Law of Righteous Conduct in the workings of the world. Not only is the stability of the social order espoused; the values of life are cherished and promoted for a progressive growth of higher superior principles in life. Its efficacy is proclaimed in the life of the individual and in the social collective functioning.

The story of Savitri is first narrated as a household tale by young Vyāsa. Later it got incorporated in the Mahābhārata as the glory of devotion to the husband. The work goes back to something like 5000 years ago.

Sri Aurobindo speaks of the Legend of Savitri belonging to the Vedic cycle. It means, it could be as old as 10,000 years.

Perhaps this Vedic origin could be traced to some of the verses of Rig Veda, Mandala X Sūkta 72 Richas 8-9, MetreAnushtubha, Rishi Loukya Brihaspati. The supreme Goddess, Aditi, the first Mother, has eight sons. It is the story of the eighth son.

While Aditi takes seven sons to higher worlds, she puts the eighth in the mortal world. This eighth son who is here has to be rescued from the grip of death. The verses run as follows:

अष्टौ पुत्रासो अदितेर्ये जातास्तन्वस्परि | 
देवाँउपप्रैत्सप्तभिः परा मार्ताण्डमास्यत् ||8||

सप्तभिः पुत्रैरदितिरुप प्रैत्पूर्व्यं युगम् | 
प्रजायै मृत्यवे त्वत्पुनर्मार्ताण्डमाभरत् ||9||

From the body of Aditi sprang to life eight sons. With seven she went to meet the Gods and cast far away the eighth, Mārtāṇda.

Aditi in the earlier age went forth with her seven sons to meet the Gods. But as a mortal coming to life and dying, to be brought to them, she left Mārtāṇda here.

This is a very terse description. If it is not obscure for us, its significance has remained sealed to our inner grasp. Perhaps the race of the Age understood it immediately. Later, however, the touch with its symbolism and intuition, with its esotericism weakened and it remained through the toiling millennia sealed in a mystic-symbolic language.

Surprisingly, even during the long fruitful Upanishadic centuries of intense spirituality its substance, its contents, its theme of the conquest of death, of immortality in the evolutionary terrestrial creation, did not find reference in them.

The Mahābhārata Tale

The Tale of Savitri appears in Vana Parva, the Book of the Forest of the Mahābhārata, in seven sections with a total of 300 verses, mostly in the Anushtubhametre. It begins with the Fire-Sacrifice, Yajña, performed by King Aswapati of the Madra land.

Aswapati is issueless and for social-worldly fulfilment it is a flaw. Therefore in order to have a son, in order to preserve the continuity of the order of the world, to maintain the righteous line for the welfare of the society, he engages himself in worshipping Goddess Savitri. Each day he makes a hundred thousand fire-offerings to her.

At the end of long arduous eighteen years the Goddess is pleased and appears in the Fire-Altar to grant him a boon.

The supreme Goddess tells him that she had already consulted Creator-Father about his request for a son; but in his wisdom he has sanctioned for him a daughter, and Aswapati should not have any reservation in accepting the boon.

Aswapati establishes the seed in the womb of his eldest queen, Mālawi, a self-sacrificing woman grown up in all nobility of life.

Soon a daughter is born and, as she was a gift from Goddess Savitri, is also named Savitri. She is effulgent, like a damsel of heaven, and presently grows into full beautiful maidenhood.

But because of her fiery splendour and exceptional beauty no hero-prince approaches her to claim her hand in marriage.

Aswapati tells to his daughter to find a life-partner of her own, one endowed with worthy upright qualities like hers own.

Savitri sets on a long unknown quest. She travels from country to country, goes from capital city to capital city; staying there for a few days at each place, her journey continues.

She goes to pilgrim centres and visits holy places and makes rich generous gifts of wealth everywhere. Deeper yet she moves, into cloistered hermitages and alcoves in remote places.

Finally Savitri comes to the Shalwa land where in the far hidden emerald forest hermitage she meets sun-bright Satyavan.

There is an immediate recognition of theirs, of each other, an ancient identity, of Satyavan and Savitri being together always. In life, undelayed, they now pledge to join in dateless union. With happy feelings she returns to her father’s palace in Madra.

But there is a happier disbelief present in the Council Hall where her father is in conversation with the heavenly sage, Narad, the sage making a surprising timely visit to them. Savitri arrives and discloses her choice in Satyavan as her life’s partner.

Aswapati asks Narad if Savitri’s choice is a proper one, about his bearing and about his upbringing, if it is acceptable in every small or large respect. After enumerating his magnanimous qualities, and his exceptional features, Narad points out that there is only one snag, one hard blemish.

It is decreed that exactly one year after the marriage Satyavan will die, Satyavan has to die. It is something which cannot be altered, it is an unavoidable death, it is an indelible edict.

Savitri is persuaded to change her mind, but she remains firm in her resolve. She upholds that her choice is the choice of her soul and there is nothing that can change it, that need be changed.

On the fated day Satyavan dies in the lap of Savitri. The physical cause is the extreme hard work in cutting the firewood, sharp arrows of pain piercing into his head. The death occurs in the lonely forest, under a kingly Tree.

God of Death, the Denier of Life, comes himself to pick up the soul of Satyavan, an ocean of noble qualities as he is.

Even as the God does it and starts moving towards his abode in the deep South, Savitri follows him through the occult darkness.

Stern Death forbids her to follow them, and she is advised to return to the safety of the terrestrial house.

Savitri refuses, impressing upon him the merit of the Law of Righteous Conduct in the World. She argues extensively, saying that the saints lead the sun by the Truth. The God is pleased with her truth-utterances and grants her several boons.

In the fierce occult battle between them eventually the divine Mortal wins victory over the God.

Savitri brings back the soul of Satyavan to the earthly dwelling.

By releasing the noose around the soul of Satyavan the God proves himself to be the superlative Benefactor of the creation. He becomes the supreme Patron of the world.

With the return of the soul of Satyavan to the Earth there is jubilation all around, marking the beginning of the highest realisation in the terrestrial scheme, in the mortal world.

Such in brief is the ancient Tale of Savitri. This is the aspect of the Legend.

The Purport behind the Vyāsa Tale

Vyāsa has one single objective in mind in narrating the story of Savitri. It is to alleviate the suffering of man by following the Path of Righteous Conduct. It is the Path of the Truth which has the power to remove all the difficulties present in life.

It is a social ideal that is proposed; it is to be established to make life happy and prosperous. Vyāsa as a builder of the society stands out prominently in the work. In fact it is that which has given to society over millennia stability that could endure the buffeting circumstances causing havoc otherwise.

Nevertheless, it does not mean that this simple Savitri-tale intents only a social ideal. Actually, that could be the outer form only. There is a deeper occult-nobler connotation in it. When one sees it with some insight its contents bring a sunlight that can illumine the terrestrial darkness itself.

The tale is a mystic document, it is a manifesto.

Claiming back the soul from Death is the most meritorious action that is possible. It means that the soul, which was under the cover of falsehood, is now free from it. That is establishing the Law of Truth, Truth from which flow light and love.

There cannot be any greater ideal apart from establishing the Law of Righteous Conduct in the Mortal World. The beauty is, man’s collaborative effort takes man to be more than man.It is entirely to the credit of Vyāsa that we have such a compact wonderful episode succinctly describing the story of triumph of virtuous life in a world where is only the primacy of Death.

Selected verses from Vyāsa’s Savitri

Brahma grants Aswapatithe boon of a daughter:

प्रसादाच्चैवतस्मात्तेस्वयम्भुविहिताद्भुवि |

कन्यातेजस्विनीसौम्यक्षिप्रमेवभविष्यति ||१.१७||

And as ordained by the self-born Brahma, indeed by his gracious favour, soon you will have on earth an effulgent daughter, O gentle-natured.

She is named Savitri:

सावित्र्याप्रीतयादत्तासावित्र्याहुतयाह्यपि |

सावित्रीत्येवनामास्याश्चक्रुर्विप्रास्तथापिता ||१.२४||

Given as she was by Savitri, who was pleased by the Savitri-oblations, the father and the wise ones name her too Savitri.

On the Quest of a life’s partner:

साहैमंरथमास्थायस्थविरैःसचिवैर्वृता |

तपोवनानिरम्याणिराजर्षीणांजगामअह ||१.३९||

Riding her golden chariot and accompanied by the elderly counsellors, Savitri travels through several lovely woods of penance of the royal sages.

Satyavan has to die — The Prophecy

एकोदोषोऽस्तिनान्योऽस्यसोऽद्यप्रभृतिसत्यवान् |

संवत्सरेणक्षीणायुर्देहन्यासंकरिष्यति ||२.२३||

Satyavan will in one year from today abandon his body, his life here expended; this is the only blemish bearing on him and there is no other.

Her perception is her single authority for her:

मनसानिश्चयंकृत्वाततोवाचाभिर्धीयते |

क्रियतेकर्मणापश्चात्प्रमाणंमेमनस्ततः ||२.२८||

By perception does one first come to a certain conclusion and then one holds it by speech; only afterwards is it put into action. That perception of mine for me is the one single authority here.

Savitri is an adept in the Yoga of Meditation:

एवमस्त्वितिसावित्रीध्यानयोगपरायणा |

मनसातागिरःसर्वाःप्रत्यगृह्णात्तपस्विनाम् ||४.१३||

Entering into the Yoga of Meditation and saying to herself ‘Be it just so!’, she in her heart of hearts repeated their words of benediction.

Words that were honey-sweet:

नदीःपुण्यवहाश्चैवपुष्पितांश्चनगोत्तमान् |

सत्यवानाहपश्येतिसावित्रींमधुरंवचः ||४.३१||

Showing the sacred streams carrying waters, and the tall mountains, and trees laden with flowers, Satyavan would speak to Savitri in words that were honey-sweet.

God of Death appears:

मुहूर्तादेवचापश्यत्पुरुषंरक्तवाससम् |

बद्धमौलिंवपुष्मन्तमादित्यसमतेजसम् ||५.८||

Within a short while she saw present there a bright person in red attire, with a tiara on his head; handsome and brilliant he looked, as though the Sun-God himself had appeared.

By the Truth the saints lead the sun:


सन्तोभूमिंतपसाधारयन्ति |


सतांमध्येनावसीदन्तिसन्तः ||५.४८||

By the Truth the saints lead the sun; by askesis the saints uphold the earth; the past, present and future find their refuge in the saints, O King. Noble persons in the midst of the saints have never any grief.

Take him now to accomplish your desire:

एषभद्रेमयामुक्तोभर्तातेकुलनन्दिनि |


अरोगस्तवनेयश्चसिद्धार्थ: सभविष्यति ||५.५६||

O gracious lady, here I free your husband, O daughter doing honour to the House; by your words possessed with merit of the dharma, O saintly woman, you have fully gladdened me. Take him now, of sound health and fit to return, to accomplish your desire which shall come true soon.

The group of palāsh-trees:

पलाशखण्डेचैतस्मिन्पन्थाव्यावर्ततेद्विधा |

तस्योत्तरेणयःपन्थास्तेनगच्छत्वरस्वच ||५.११०||

Near the group of palāsh-trees the path bifurcates and moves in different directions; take the one which leads to the north, but now speed up.

She redeemed the house:


कुलंनरेन्द्रस्यतमोमयेह्रदे |


समुद्धृतंसाध्विपुनःकुलीनया ||६.४३||

The House of the King was plunging more and more into darkness, assailed by misfortunes; but you of noble birth and a virtuous wife, sweet and amiable in nature, and an observer of the vows, one given to meritorious conduct, redeemed the family from doom.

But, as is clear from its significant utterance, from its idiom and from its tone, the Savitri-tale is more than a tale or a legend.

It is a symbol charged with the story of creation and the progressive manifestation of the powers of the spirit in the mortal world. It is the story of the evolution of the soul of the Earth holding more and more the wonders of creative delight.

Savitri as a Symbol

Savitri is the story of evolution, evolution of consciousness with greater superior forms constantly appearing. It is now poised to enter from truth-ignorance into the realm of truth-knowledge.

It is a charter for the soul of the Earth to hold and express more and more of the wonders of the creative delight.

In the history of the Earth a major and radical transition is on the verge of arrival. There is the supreme Will behind it, forces and circumstances have gathered up behind it. There is the dynamism carrying it in its sweeping and luminous stride.

The issue is tied with the quarrel between Earth and Love and Doom, the ancient Disputants, present since the beginning. In it is relived the fierce question of man’s hour, of his destiny. It can be resolved only by the sacrifice of suffering and desire Earth offers to the immortal Ecstasy.

Earth is a significant centre in the cosmos, there is the most fundamental, most occult geocentricity, and its purpose is the evolutionary march. Earth was created to concentrate the effort of this evolutionary manifestation.There is a special presence, the psychic presence in it. This special Presence can flourish and grow and progress only when Death is removed.

The genesis of Evolution itself is in the Story of Creation. Four mighty Powers in their absolute freedom of action separated themselves from their Origin of Light and Love, from the original Source; they parted from it and became their dire opposites. Consciousness turned into Inconscience, Life into Death, Bliss into Pain and Suffering, Being into Non-Being. That could be a purposeful separation, but is at present with grim implications.

When this Horror of Separation was seen, there was the grand Plunge, even as the Soul of absolute Love stationed itself in the Pit of this Separation, in the Void, in the Non-Presence.

This corrective Plunge, this remedial move, this self-sacrifice is the first Incarnation of the Supreme. But this Incarnation, as Love, is locked in the Inconscience; it has fallen in the Pit of the Non-Presence and must be set free. That is the central issue and unless that is resolved no authentic progress is possible in this world of death and ignorance. That itself is the Supreme’s Task.

It is a task which has to be carried out by his own Power.

That means that she must be born in the Mortal World, she must condescend to pass through the portals of the birth that is a death. A prayer from the Earth’s soul must go to the Supreme, compelling her to take the mortal birth.

The Prayer and the Boon

Therefore the Supreme comes and becomes Aswapati, the Lord of Life-Forces. His becoming Aswapati is to prepare the Earth-Consciousness for this transformative work. He comes and moves through nooks and corners of cosmic widenesses, up and down, in every direction. Even as he moves through world after climbing world he leaves his presence in all the places, a presence on which she the supreme Power could stand and do her work of the future, that presence becoming the ensuring foundation for it, the needed occult-spiritual ground.

Aswapati meets her in the Transcendent where there is the absoluteness of real-idea and action. She the Truth-Force is the luminous heart of the Unknown, she is a power of silence in the depths of God, she is the inevitable Word, she is the magnet of man’s difficult ascent, she is the Sun from which are kindled all the suns, she is the Light that leans from the unrealised Vasts, she is the joy that beckons from the impossible, she is the Might of all that never yet came down. It is to her alone all Nature dumbly calls, calls to heal with her feet the aching throb of life.

All here one day has to be her sweetness’s home. Aswapati’s spirit is caught in her gold-bright intense flame and his prayer to her is to mission to Earth some living form of hers; she must come and fill one moment with her eternity, she must in one great act unlock the doors of Fate.

She assures him that One shall descend and break the iron Law, the Law of Death, she the One shall change Nature’s doom by the lone Spirit’s power. She shall bear wisdom in her voiceless bosom, and her strength shall be the sword of the conqueror. In her coming shall be planted a branch of heaven on earth’s soil, and in her mission Fate shall be changed by an unchanging will.

That One is she herself coming as Savitri.

Savitri bidden to vanquish Death

Eventually Savitri is bidden to find for herself her life’s partner, as none comes forward claiming her hand in marriage — she being too dazzling and commanding for human soul to match her greatness and glory. In her search she finally meets Satyavan in the Shalwa Woods, he staying in cloistered surroundings with hermitages. They pledge to be together. With that word she returns to her father’s palace.

Even as she enters the Council Hall she finds her parents in the company of Narad who pays a timely purposeful visit to them.

The inevitable happens. He lets them know that, exactly one year after the marriage, Satyavan has to die a decreed death.

Savitri is persuaded to make another choice but to no avail; she remains firm in her soul-born resolve. It was her most sacred choice and she would not deviate from it.

Narad approves her sense of rectitude, and blesses them. Savitri always remembers Narad’s word about her husband’s death. She has as yet no clue how she was going to meet the situation.

But even as she remains calm in her grief’s self, a Voice tells her about the mission she had come to carry out. She must find her soul, house in it the power of that Voice, and vanquish Death.

Savitri passes through the cosmic past and pushes it aside. A portion of the mighty Mother enters into her being. But the imperative is, to discover the soul. Savitri goes into the inner countries, meets her own soul-forces, and suddenly meets her secret soul. Soul and Oversoul join and grow into one.

Not only that; centre after centre in her subtle body opens out to the inrushing divine Puissance, it taking charge of her inner being. Yet that, though necessary, is not sufficient if she has to vanquish Death. Her physical born of Inconscience is still vulnerable and Death can easily foil her design.

Savitri must annul herself totally that only God may be. She must blow out the ancient stuff of Inconscience. A formless liberation comes upon her and she is now ready to face Death.

Satyavan dies at the appointed moment, dies in the lap of Savitri. The God of Death himself comes to pick up his soul.

Savitri follows them, with the spirit of Satyavan in front, behind it Death, and behind them Savitri, she from behind the leader of the march. In the occult logomachy weapons are flung against each other. Death yet remains unyielding, and he is not going to give back to her the soul of Satyavan.

Savitri enters deep into her house of meditation and sees there a Fire-Sacrifice going on constantly. She identifies herself with it, and the events now take a different turn, in favour of Savitri.

Death asks Savitri to reveal to him if the Mighty Mother is with her, that he might worship her. Then would the dead return to life. She speaks not a word. 

But a mighty transformation comes on her. There was no more the necessity for God to wear the mask of Inconscience. The moment of truth getting revealed is here.

Darkness sees living Reality. Her mastering Word commands every limb of his, and leaves no room for his enormous will.

His body is eaten up by light, his spirit devoured. Afar he flees, shunning her dreaded touch. The dire universal Shadow disappears into the retreating Night.

Transfigured Death sends Satyavan and Savitri to Earth with an exceptional boon, that this earthly life shall become the life divine. And the wonder! Even as Savitri is descending down with the soul of Satyavan held in her hand like a bird

Pursuing her in her fall, implacably sweet,

A face was over her which seemed a youth’s,

Symbol of all the beauty eyes see not,

Crowned as with peacock plumes of gorgeous hue

Framing a sapphire, whose heart-disturbing smile

Insatiably attracted to delight,

Voluptuous to the embraces of her soul. ||156.6||

Changed in its shape, yet rapturously the same,

It grew a woman’s dark and beautiful

Like a mooned night with drifting star-gemmed clouds,

A shadowy glory and a stormy depth,

Turbulent in will and terrible in love. ||156.7||

The coming down of Krishna, the Being of Bliss, Ānandamaya Purusha, and Kāli, the divine dynamic Force, Shakti, is the triumphant boon of Savitri for the soul of the Earth.

Savitri, a shrine for the God of Love

Here is Savitri, a perfect shrine for the God of Love:

Love in her was wider than the universe,

The whole world could take refuge in her single heart. ||3.37||

The great unsatisfied godhead here could dwell:

Vacant of the dwarf self’s imprisoned air

Her mood could harbour his sublimer breath

Spiritual that can make all things divine. ||3.38||

For even her gulfs were secrecies of light. ||3.39||

At once she was the stillness and the word,

A continent of self-diffusing peace,

An ocean of untrembling virgin fire:

The strength, the silence of the gods were hers. ||3.40||

In her he found a vastness like his own,

His high warm subtle ether he refound

And moved in her as in his natural home. ||3.41||

In her he met his own eternity. ||3.42||

By housing, by enshrining divine Love in her soul and in her body Savitri establishes the reign of Love in the mortal creation, Love in which open out possibilities and possibilities of manifestation of the eternal Spirit.

That answers the original question, what or who is Savitri. She is the dynamic power of Love establishing the reign of Truth and Beauty and Joy in this mortal creation.

Thus to quintessence the Story of Savitri:

The frontiers of the Ignorance shall recede,

More and more souls shall enter into light,

Minds lit, inspired, the occult summoner hear

And lives blaze with a sudden inner flame

And hearts grow enamoured of divine delight

And human wills tune to the divine will,

These separate selves the Spirit’s oneness feel,

These senses of heavenly sense grow capable,

The flesh and nerves of a strange ethereal joy

And mortal bodies of immortality. ||155.67||

A divine force shall flow through tissue and cell

And take the charge of breath and speech and act

And all the thoughts shall be a glow of suns

And every feeling a celestial thrill. ||155.68||

Nature shall live to manifest secret God,

The Spirit shall take up the human play,

This earthly life become the life divine. ||155.71||

The significance of Savitri as a Symbol derives its contents from the epic by Sri Aurobindo which goes by the same name, Savitri, with a sub-title A Legend and a Symbol. It was essentially written during the last 15 years of his life, 1936-50. This is the longest epic in English literature running into 24,000 lines with end-stopped iambic pentameter blank verse form.

Under the widest blue sky is this incomparable Savitri, a super-literature. It is the most beautiful thing we have from its creator, and there is nothing beyond it, ne plus ultra. In it is to be lived the life of truth and love and joy and beauty and harmony. One must find the secret of that Savitri, to get the answer what is Savitri. The Book of Love holds the key to it.


About the Author: Born on 17 April 1931 Dr. R.Y. Deshpande is a professor, philosopher, author, poet and inmate of Sri Aurobindo Ashram, Pondicherry. After graduating from Osmania University, Hyderabad, he joined the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai as a research physicist in 1955 and worked in this organization till 1957. In 1957 he joined the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai where he worked till 1981 and headed several Atomic Energy and Space Projects in Advance Technology with Dr. Raja Ramanna. Having received his Ph.D. in nuclear physics in 1964, he worked at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California USA from 1964 to 1965. He has some fifty research papers published in national and international scientific journals. He was also an examiner for a number of Ph.D. theses in the field of Solid State Physics. In 1981 Deshpande joined Sri Aurobindo Ashram of Pondicherry. For thirty years, he taught physics and a few other subjects such as Astrophysics, Savitri, The Future Poetry, Science and Society at the Sri Aurobindo International Centre of Education. For eight years he was the associate Editor of Mother India, a Monthly Review of Culture, published by the Sri Aurobindo Ashram. During 2007-2008 Deshpande was the editor of a web-magazine titled Science-Culture-Integral Yoga founded in Los Angeles. His published works in prose and poetry include titles like Sri Aurobindo and the New Millennium, Vyasa’s Savitri, The Ancient Tale of Savitri, “Satyavan Must Die”, All Life is Yoga, Nagin-bhai Tells Me, The Rhododendron Valley, All is Dream-Blaze, Under the Raintree, Paging the Unknown, The Wager of Ambrosia, Savitri: Notes and Comments, Elements and Evolution, Sri Aurobindo’s Narad, The Birth of the Sun-God, Hymns to Becoming, These Mountains, The Secret Knowledge, Savitri Talks: The Symbol Dawn, Islam’s Contribution to Science, Big Science and India, Running Through Savitri, A Look at the Symbol Dawn: Observations-Comments-Discussions, Savitri: The Poetry of Immortality,  and Sanatana Dharma: An Aurobindonian Perspective to name a few. He has also edited the following books: Nirodbaran: Poet and Sadhak, Amal Kiran: Poet and Critic and Perspectives of Savitri

6 Replies to “The Essence of Savitri by R.Y. Deshpande

  1. Great scholarly output, in the Lord’s writings, particularly associated with Savitri editorial team, under Amal, Niroda, and was present in all the meetings from its inception, with Jugalda, and others.

  2. Had I been in Puducherry, I would love to collaborate with dear RYD in digging out gems hidden in SAVITRI, canto after canto. Frank admiration!

  3. He writes with incredible deal of profound insight , analysis and finally concludes with synthetic and
    harmonious vision – There is nothing which the Professor leaves for any other conjecture – the articles are complete in themselves – It is the result of years and years of Tapasya and one pointed devotion to unearth the secret treasures of “Savitri ” Param Nidhi –
    Thank you !

  4. Ma
    Life seems to have so many things and solution is with divine.Keeping a witness consciousness & letting mother know what’s going on and not getting entangled in it a lesson and reading Ma Gurudeva’s all writing and Ma Savitri being mantra is the soul’s guide which one holds onto because one loves Ma Gurudeva and hopes, aspires somehow one just get carried by the divine as life things are not so so & one just tells Mother , Mother be with me & guide me as so much ignorance one is in.

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